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Scale Development
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Scale Development
Theory and Applications

Fifth Edition


October 2021 | 320 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc
Scale Development: Theory and Applications, by Robert F. DeVellis and new co-author Carolyn T. Thorpe, demystifies measurement by emphasizing a logical rather than strictly mathematical understanding of concepts. The Fifth Edition includes a new chapter that lays out the key concepts that distinguish indices from scales, contrasts various types of indices, suggests approaches for developing them, reviews validity and reliability issues, and discusses in broad terms some analytic approaches. All chapters have been updated, and the book strikes a balance between including relevant topics and highlighting recent developments in measurement while retaining an accessible, user-friendly approach to the material covered.

 
Preface
 
Acknowledgments
 
About the Authors
 
Chapter 1 • Overview
General Perspectives on Measurement

 
Historical Origins of Measurement in Social  Science

 
Later Developments in Measurement

 
The Role of Measurement in the Social Sciences

 
Summary and Preview

 
Exercises

 
 
Chapter 2 • Understanding the Latent Variable
Constructs Versus Measures

 
Latent Variable as the Presumed Cause of Scale Item Values

 
Path Diagrams

 
Further Elaboration of the Measurement  Model

 
Parallel Tests

 
Alternative Models

 
Choosing a Causal Model

 
Exercises

 
Note

 
 
Chapter 3 • Scale Reliability
Methods Based on the Analysis of Variance

 
Continuous Versus Dichotomous Items

 
Internal Consistency

 
Coefficient Alpha

 
Remedies to Alpha’s Limitations

 
Coefficient Omega (?)

 
Reliability Based on Correlations Between Scale Scores

 
Reliability and Statistical Power

 
Generalizability Theory

 
Summary

 
Exercises

 
Notes

 
 
Chapter 4 • Scale Validity
Content Validity

 
Criterion-Related Validity

 
Construct Validity

 
What About Face Validity?

 
Exercises

 
 
Chapter 5 • Guidelines in Scale Development
Step 1: Determine Clearly What It Is You Want to Measure

 
Step 2: Generate an Item Pool

 
Step 3: Determine the Format for Measurement

 
Step 4: Have Initial Item Pool Reviewed by  Experts

 
Step 5: Cognitive Interviewing

 
Step 6: Consider Inclusion of Validation  Items

 
Step 7: Administer Items to a Development  Sample

 
Step 8: Evaluate the Items

 
Step 9: Optimize Scale Length

 
Exercises

 
Note

 
 
Chapter 6 • Factor Analysis
Overview of Factor Analysis

 
Conceptual Description of Factor Analysis

 
Bifactor and Hierarchical Factor Models

 
Interpreting Factors

 
Principal Components Versus Common  Factors

 
Confirmatory Factor Analysis

 
Using Factor Analysis in Scale Development

 
Sample Size

 
Conclusion

 
Exercises

 
 
Chapter 7 • The Index
How an Index Differs From a Scale

 
Rules of Thumb for Differentiating an Index From a Scale

 
Is It a Scale or an Index? Formal Methods for Distinguishing Effect and Causal Indicators

 
Steps in Developing and Evaluating an  Index

 
Hybrid Measures

 
Methods Based on Structural Equation Modeling

 
Criticisms of Index Composites

 
Exercises

 
Note

 
 
Chapter 8 • An Overview of Item Response Theory
Item Difficulty

 
Item Discrimination

 
Guessing, or False Positives

 
Item-Characteristic Curves

 
IRT Applied to Multiresponse Items

 
Exercises

 
 
Chapter 9 • Measurement in the Broader Research Context
Before Scale Development

 
After Scale Administration

 
Final Thoughts

 
Exercise

 
 
References
Key features
  • Presents technical concepts in a way that is more understandable for a readership in the social and behavioral sciences.
  • Includes a new chapter that lays out the key concepts that distinguish indices from scales.
  • Strikes a balance between including relevant topics and highlighting recent developments in measurement while retaining an accessible, user-friendly approach to the material covered.

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